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In the preparation phase of DR, it is important to consider the use of services and features that support data migration and durable storage, because they enable you to restore backed-up, critical data to AWS when disaster strikes. For some of the scenarios that involve either a scaled-down or a fully scaled deployment of your system in AWS, compute resources will be required as well. 

When reacting to a disaster, it is essential to either quick commission compute resources to run your system in AWS or to orchestrate the failover to already running resources in AWS. The essential infrastructure pieces include DNS, networking features, and various Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) features described later in this section.  To get in-Depth knowledge on AWS you can enroll for live AWS Online Training


Amazon Web Services are available in multiple regions around the globe, so you can choose the most appropriate location for your DR site, in addition to the site where your system is fully deployed. AWS has multiple general-purpose regions in the Americas, EMEA, and the Asia Pacific that anyone with an AWS account can access. Special-use regions are also available for government agencies and for China. See the full list of available regions here. 


Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) provides a highly durable storage infrastructure designed for mission-critical and primary data storage. Objects are redundantly stored on multiple devices across multiple facilities within a region, designed to provide a durability of 99.999999999% (11 9s). AWS provides further protection for data retention and archiving through versioning in Amazon S3, AWS multi-factor authentication (AWS MFA), bucket policies, and AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM).  

Amazon Glacier provides extremely low-cost storage for data archiving and backup. Objects (or archives, as they are known in Amazon Glacier) are optimized for infrequent access, for which retrieval times of several hours are adequate. Amazon Glacier is designed for the same durability as Amazon S3. 

Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) provides the ability to create point-in-time snapshots of data volumes. You can use the snapshots as the starting point for new Amazon EBS volumes, and you can protect your data for long-term durability because snapshots are stored within Amazon S3. After a volume is created, you can attach it to a running Amazon EC2 instance. Amazon EBS volumes provide off-instance storage that persists independently from the life of an instance and is replicated across multiple servers in an Availability Zone to prevent the loss of data from the failure of any single component.  

AWS Import/Export accelerates moving large amounts of data into and out of AWS by using portable storage devices for transport. AWS Import/Export bypasses the Internet and transfers your data directly onto and off of storage devices by means of the high-speed internal network of Amazon. For data sets of significant size, AWS Import/Export is often faster than Internet transfer and more cost-effective than upgrading your connectivity. You can use AWS Import/Export to migrate data into and out of Amazon S3 buckets and Amazon Glacier vaults or into Amazon EBS snapshots. 

AWS Storage Gateway is a service that connects an on-premises software appliance with cloud-based storage to provide seamless and highly secure integration between your on-premises IT environment and the storage infrastructure of AWS.  

AWS Storage Gateway supports three different configurations: 

Gateway-cached volumes — You can store your primary data in Amazon S3 and retain your frequently accessed data locally. Gateway-cached volumes provide substantial cost savings on primary storage, minimize the need to scale your storage on-premises and retain low-latency access to your frequently accessed data.  

Gateway-stored volumes — In the event that you need low-latency access to your entire data set, you can configure your gateway to store your primary data locally, and asynchronously back up point-in-time snapshots of this data to Amazon S3. Gateway-stored volumes provide durable and inexpensive off-site backups that you can recover locally or from Amazon EC2 if, for example, you need replacement capacity for disaster recovery. 

Gateway-virtual tape library (gateway-VTL) — With gateway-VTL, you can have an almost limitless collection of virtual tapes. You can store each virtual tape in a virtual tape library (VTL) backed by Amazon S3 or a virtual tape shelf (VTS) backed by Amazon Glacier. The virtual tape library exposes an industry-standard iSCSI interface that provides your backup application with on-line access to the virtual tapes. When you no longer require immediate or frequent access to data contained on a virtual tape, you can use your backup application to move it from its VTL to your VTS to further reduce your storage costs. 


Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. Within minutes, you can create Amazon EC2 instances, which are virtual machines over which you have complete control. In the context of DR, the ability to rapidly create virtual machines that you can control is critical. To describe every feature of Amazon EC2 is outside the scope of this document; instead; we focus on the aspects of Amazon EC2 that are most relevant to DR. 

Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) are preconfigured with operating systems, and some preconfigured AMIs might also include application stacks. You can also configure your own AMIs. In the context of DR, we strongly recommend that you configure and identify your own AMIs so that they can launch as part of your recovery procedure. Such AMIs should be preconfigured with your operating system of choice plus appropriate pieces of the application stack. 

Availability Zones are distinct locations that are engineered to be insulated from failures in other Availability Zones. They also provide inexpensive, low-latency network connectivity to other Availability Zones in the same region. By launching instances in separate Availability Zones, you can protect your applications from the failure of a single location. Regions consist of one or more Availability Zones. 

The Amazon EC2 VM Import Connector virtual appliance enables you to import virtual machine images from your existing environment to Amazon EC2 instances. 


When you are dealing with a disaster, it’s very likely that you will have to modify network settings as your system is failing over to another site. AWS offers several services and features that enable you to manage and modify network settings. 

Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It gives developers and businesses a reliable, cost-effective way to route users to Internet applications. Amazon Route 53 includes a number of global load-balancing capabilities (which can be effective when you are dealing with DR scenarios such as DNS endpoint health checks) and the ability to failover between multiple endpoints and even static websites hosted on Amazon S3

Elastic IP addresses are static IP addresses designed for dynamic cloud computing. However, unlike traditional static IP addresses, Elastic IP addresses enable you to mask instance or Availability Zone failures by programmatically remapping your public IP addresses to instances in your account in a particular region. For DR, you can also pre-allocate some IP addresses for the most critical systems so that their IP addresses are already known before disaster strikes. This can simplify the execution of the DR plan. 

Elastic Load Balancing automatically distributes incoming application traffic across multiple Amazon EC2 instances. It enables you to achieve even greater fault tolerance in your applications by seamlessly providing the load-balancing capacity that is needed in response to incoming application traffic. Just as you can pre-allocate Elastic IP addresses, you can pre-allocate your load balancer so that its DNS name is already known, which can simplify the execution of your DR plan. 

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) lets you provision a private, isolated section of the AWS cloud where you can launch AWS resources in a virtual network that you define. You have complete control over your virtual networking environment, including a selection of your own IP address range, creation of subnets, and configuration of route tables and network gateways. This enables you to create a VPN connection between your corporate data center and your VPC, and leverage the AWS cloud as an extension of your corporate data center. In the context of DR, you can use Amazon VPC to extend your existing network topology to the cloud; this can be especially appropriate when recovering enterprise applications that are typically on the internal network.  

Amazon Direct Connect makes it easy to set up a dedicated network connection from your premises to AWS. In many cases, this can reduce your network costs, increase bandwidth throughput, and provide a more consistent network experience than Internet-based connections.   


For your database needs, consider using these AWS services: 

Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) makes it easy to set up, operate, and scale a relational database in the cloud. You can use Amazon RDS either in the preparation phase for DR to hold your critical data in a database that is already running, or in the recovery phase to run your production database. When you want to look at multiple regions, Amazon RDS gives you the ability to snapshot data from one region to another, and also to have a read replica running in another region. 

Amazon DynamoDB is a fast, fully managed NoSQL database service that makes it simple and cost-effective to store and retrieve any amount of data and serve any level of request traffic. It has reliable throughput and single-digit, millisecond latency. You can also use it in the preparation phase to copy data to DynamoDB in another region or to Amazon S3. During the recovery phase of DR, you can scale up seamlessly in a matter of minutes with a single click or API call. 

Amazon Redshift is a fast, fully managed, petabyte-scale data warehouse service that makes it simple and cost-effective to efficiently analyze all your data using your existing business intelligence tools. You can use Amazon Redshift in the preparation phase to snapshot your data warehouse to be durably stored in Amazon S3 within the same region or copied to another region. During the recovery phase of DR, you can quickly restore your data warehouse into the same region or within another AWS region.  

You can also install and run your choice of database software on Amazon EC2, and you can choose from a variety of leading database systems. 

Deployment orchestration 

Deployment automation and post-startup software installation/configuration processes and tools can be used in Amazon EC2. We highly recommend investments in this area. This can be very helpful in the recovery phase, enabling you to create the required set of resources in an automated way. 

AWS CloudFormation gives developers and systems administrators an easy way to create a collection of related AWS resources and provision them in an orderly and predictable fashion. You can create templates for your environments and deploy associated collections of resources (called a stack) as needed.  

AWS Elastic Beanstalk is an easy-to-use service for deploying and scaling web applications and services developed with Java, .NET, PHP, Node.js, Python, Ruby, and Docker. You can deploy your application code, and AWS Elastic Beanstalk will provision the operating environment for your applications. 

AWS OpsWorks is an application management service that makes it easy to deploy and operate applications of all types and sizes. You can define your environment as a series of layers, and configure each layer as a tier of your application. AWS OpsWorks has automatic host replacement, so in the event of an instance failure, it will be automatically replaced. You can use AWS OpsWorks in the preparation phase to template your environment, and you can combine it with AWS CloudFormation in the recovery phase. You can quickly provision a new stack from the stored configuration that supports the defined RTO. 

Security and compliance 

There are many security-related features across the AWS services. We recommend that you review the Security Best Practices whitepaper. AWS also provides further risk and compliance information in the AWS Security Center. A full discussion of security is out of scope for this paper. 

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[ Modified: Thursday, 17 October 2019, 6:56 AM ]